make help để biết biên dịch Linux kernel từ A tới Á

Biên dịch Linux kernel xài lệnh make để chỉ ra các mục đích biên dịch (target).

Có bao nhiêu mục đích biên dịch trong Linux kernel? make help sẽ trả lời câu hỏi này cho bạn.

Nói cách khác

make help sẽ chỉ ra tất cả các mục tiêu biên dịch Linux kernel cho bạn.

make help
Cleaning targets:
  clean		  - Remove most generated files but keep the config and
                    enough build support to build external modules
  mrproper	  - Remove all generated files + config + various backup files
  distclean	  - mrproper + remove editor backup and patch files

Configuration targets:
  config	  - Update current config utilising a line-oriented program
  nconfig         - Update current config utilising a ncurses menu based program
  menuconfig	  - Update current config utilising a menu based program
  xconfig	  - Update current config utilising a Qt based front-end
  gconfig	  - Update current config utilising a GTK+ based front-end
  oldconfig	  - Update current config utilising a provided .config as base
  localmodconfig  - Update current config disabling modules not loaded
                    except those preserved by LMC_KEEP environment variable
  localyesconfig  - Update current config converting local mods to core
                    except those preserved by LMC_KEEP environment variable
  defconfig	  - New config with default from ARCH supplied defconfig
  savedefconfig   - Save current config as ./defconfig (minimal config)
  allnoconfig	  - New config where all options are answered with no
  allyesconfig	  - New config where all options are accepted with yes
  allmodconfig	  - New config selecting modules when possible
  alldefconfig    - New config with all symbols set to default
  randconfig	  - New config with random answer to all options
  yes2modconfig	  - Change answers from yes to mod if possible
  mod2yesconfig	  - Change answers from mod to yes if possible
  mod2noconfig	  - Change answers from mod to no if possible
  listnewconfig   - List new options
  helpnewconfig   - List new options and help text
  olddefconfig	  - Same as oldconfig but sets new symbols to their
                    default value without prompting
  tinyconfig	  - Configure the tiniest possible kernel
  testconfig	  - Run Kconfig unit tests (requires python3 and pytest)

Configuration topic targets:
  debug.config              - Debugging for CI systems and finding regressions
  kvm_guest.config          - Bootable as a KVM guest
  nopm.config               - Disable Power Management
  rust.config               - Enable Rust
  x86_debug.config          - Debugging options for tip tree testing
  xen.config                - Bootable as a Xen guest

Other generic targets:
  all		  - Build all targets marked with [*]
* vmlinux	  - Build the bare kernel
* modules	  - Build all modules
  modules_install - Install all modules to INSTALL_MOD_PATH (default: /)
  dir/            - Build all files in dir and below
  dir/file.[ois]  - Build specified target only
  dir/file.ll     - Build the LLVM assembly file
                    (requires compiler support for LLVM assembly generation)
  dir/file.lst    - Build specified mixed source/assembly target only
                    (requires a recent binutils and recent build (
  dir/file.ko     - Build module including final link
  modules_prepare - Set up for building external modules
  tags/TAGS	  - Generate tags file for editors
  cscope	  - Generate cscope index
  gtags           - Generate GNU GLOBAL index
  kernelrelease	  - Output the release version string (use with make -s)
  kernelversion	  - Output the version stored in Makefile (use with make -s)
  image_name	  - Output the image name (use with make -s)
  headers_install - Install sanitised kernel headers to INSTALL_HDR_PATH
                    (default: ./usr)

Static analysers:
  checkstack      - Generate a list of stack hogs
  versioncheck    - Sanity check on version.h usage
  includecheck    - Check for duplicate included header files
  export_report   - List the usages of all exported symbols
  headerdep       - Detect inclusion cycles in headers
  coccicheck      - Check with Coccinelle
  clang-analyzer  - Check with clang static analyzer
  clang-tidy      - Check with clang-tidy

  nsdeps          - Generate missing symbol namespace dependencies

Kernel selftest:
  kselftest         - Build and run kernel selftest
                      Build, install, and boot kernel before
                      running kselftest on it
                      Run as root for full coverage
  kselftest-all     - Build kernel selftest
  kselftest-install - Build and install kernel selftest
  kselftest-clean   - Remove all generated kselftest files
  kselftest-merge   - Merge all the config dependencies of
		      kselftest to existing .config.

Rust targets:
  rustavailable   - Checks whether the Rust toolchain is
		    available and, if not, explains why.
  rustfmt	  - Reformat all the Rust code in the kernel
  rustfmtcheck	  - Checks if all the Rust code in the kernel
		    is formatted, printing a diff otherwise.
  rustdoc	  - Generate Rust documentation
		    (requires kernel .config)
  rusttest        - Runs the Rust tests
                    (requires kernel .config; downloads external repos)
  rust-analyzer	  - Generate rust-project.json rust-analyzer support file
		    (requires kernel .config)
  dir/file.[os]   - Build specified target only
  dir/file.rsi    - Build macro expanded source, similar to C preprocessing.
                    Run with RUSTFMT=n to skip reformatting if needed.
                    The output is not intended to be compilable.
  dir/file.ll     - Build the LLVM assembly file

Userspace tools targets:
  use "make tools/help"
  or  "cd tools; make help"

Kernel packaging:
  rpm-pkg             - Build both source and binary RPM kernel packages
  srcrpm-pkg          - Build only the source kernel RPM package
  binrpm-pkg          - Build only the binary kernel RPM package
  deb-pkg             - Build both source and binary deb kernel packages
  srcdeb-pkg          - Build only the source kernel deb package
  bindeb-pkg          - Build only the binary kernel deb package
  snap-pkg            - Build only the binary kernel snap package
                        (will connect to external hosts)
  dir-pkg             - Build the kernel as a plain directory structure
  tar-pkg             - Build the kernel as an uncompressed tarball
  targz-pkg           - Build the kernel as a gzip compressed tarball
  tarbz2-pkg          - Build the kernel as a bzip2 compressed tarball
  tarxz-pkg           - Build the kernel as a xz compressed tarball
  tarzst-pkg          - Build the kernel as a zstd compressed tarball
  perf-tar-src-pkg    - Build the perf source tarball with no compression
  perf-targz-src-pkg  - Build the perf source tarball with gzip compression
  perf-tarbz2-src-pkg - Build the perf source tarball with bz2 compression
  perf-tarxz-src-pkg  - Build the perf source tarball with xz compression
  perf-tarzst-src-pkg - Build the perf source tarball with zst compression

Documentation targets:
 Linux kernel internal documentation in different formats from ReST:
  htmldocs        - HTML
  texinfodocs     - Texinfo
  infodocs        - Info
  latexdocs       - LaTeX
  pdfdocs         - PDF
  epubdocs        - EPUB
  xmldocs         - XML
  linkcheckdocs   - check for broken external links
                    (will connect to external hosts)
  refcheckdocs    - check for references to non-existing files under
  cleandocs       - clean all generated files

  make SPHINXDIRS="s1 s2" [target] Generate only docs of folder s1, s2
  valid values for SPHINXDIRS are: PCI RCU accel accounting admin-guide arch block bpf cdrom core-api cpu-freq crypto dev-tools devicetree doc-guide driver-api fault-injection fb filesystems firmware-guide fpga gpu hid hwmon i2c iio infiniband input isdn kbuild kernel-hacking leds livepatch locking maintainer mhi misc-devices mm netlabel networking pcmcia peci power powerpc process riscv rust scheduler scsi security sound spi staging target timers tools trace translations usb userspace-api virt w1 watchdog wmi

  make SPHINX_CONF={conf-file} [target] use *additional* sphinx-build
  configuration. This is e.g. useful to build with nit-picking config.

  make DOCS_THEME={sphinx-theme} selects a different Sphinx theme.

  make DOCS_CSS={a .css file} adds a DOCS_CSS override file for html/epub output.

  Default location for the generated documents is Documentation/output

Architecture specific targets (x86):
* bzImage		- Compressed kernel image (arch/x86/boot/bzImage)
  install		- Install kernel using (your) ~/bin/installkernel or
			  (distribution) /sbin/installkernel or install to 
			  $(INSTALL_PATH) and run lilo

  fdimage		- Create 1.4MB boot floppy image (arch/x86/boot/fdimage)
  fdimage144		- Create 1.4MB boot floppy image (arch/x86/boot/fdimage)
  fdimage288		- Create 2.8MB boot floppy image (arch/x86/boot/fdimage)
  hdimage		- Create a BIOS/EFI hard disk image (arch/x86/boot/hdimage)
  isoimage		- Create a boot CD-ROM image (arch/x86/boot/image.iso)
			  bzdisk/fdimage*/hdimage/isoimage also accept:
			  FDARGS="..."  arguments for the booted kernel
			  FDINITRD=file initrd for the booted kernel

  i386_defconfig              - Build for i386
  x86_64_defconfig            - Build for x86_64

  make V=n   [targets] 1: verbose build
                       2: give reason for rebuild of target
                       V=1 and V=2 can be combined with V=12
  make O=dir [targets] Locate all output files in "dir", including .config
  make C=1   [targets] Check re-compiled c source with $CHECK
                       (sparse by default)
  make C=2   [targets] Force check of all c source with $CHECK
  make RECORDMCOUNT_WARN=1 [targets] Warn about ignored mcount sections
  make W=n   [targets] Enable extra build checks, n=1,2,3 where
		1: warnings which may be relevant and do not occur too often
		2: warnings which occur quite often but may still be relevant
		3: more obscure warnings, can most likely be ignored
		e: warnings are being treated as errors
		Multiple levels can be combined with W=12 or W=123

Execute "make" or "make all" to build all targets marked with [*] 
For further info see the ./README file

Linux kernel

There are several guides for kernel developers and users. These guides can
be rendered in a number of formats, like HTML and PDF. Please read
Documentation/admin-guide/README.rst first.

In order to build the documentation, use ``make htmldocs`` or
``make pdfdocs``.  The formatted documentation can also be read online at:

There are various text files in the Documentation/ subdirectory,
several of them using the Restructured Text markup notation.

Please read the Documentation/process/changes.rst file, as it contains the
requirements for building and running the kernel, and information about
the problems which may result by upgrading your kernel.